Depending on the environment, the types of networks are decided so that those can be deployed underwater, underground, on land, and so on. Different types of WSNs include:
Terrestrial WSNs are capable of communicating base stations efficiently, and consist of hundreds to thousands of wireless sensor nodes deployed either in unstructured (ad hoc) or structured (Preplanned) manner. In an unstructured mode, the sensor nodes are randomly distributed within the target area that is dropped from a fixed plane. The preplanned or structured mode considers optimal placement, grid placement, and 2D, 3D placement models.
In this WSN, the battery power is limited; however, the battery is equipped with solar cells as a secondary power source. The Energy conservation of these WSNs is achieved by using low duty cycle operations, minimizing delays, and optimal routing, and so on.wireless sensor networks projects we can simulate with matlab
The underground wireless sensor networks are more expensive than the terrestrial WSNs in terms of deployment, maintenance, and equipment cost considerations and careful planning. The WSNs networks consist of a number of sensor nodes that are hidden in the ground to monitor underground conditions. To relay information from the sensor nodes to the base station, additional sink nodes are located above the ground.
More than 70% of the earth is occupied with water. These networks consist of a number of sensor nodes and vehicles deployed under water. Autonomous underwater vehicles are used for gathering data from these sensor nodes. A challenge of underwater communication is a long propagation delay, and bandwidth and sensor failures.
Muttimedia wireless sensor networks have been proposed to enable tracking and monitoring of events in the form of multimedia, such as imaging, video, and audio. These networks consist of low-cost sensor nodes equipped with micrpphones and cameras.These nodes are interconnected with each other over a wireless connection for data compression, data retrieval and correlation.